CIPO

Manual of Patent Office Practice (MOPOP)

Manual of Patent Office Practice (MOPOP)  1-0

Chapter 1 Contacting the Patent Office  1-12

1.01 Physical delivery of correspondence to CIPO - April 2018  1-12

1.01.01 Designated establishments  1-12

1.01.02 Registered MailTM and XpresspostTM services of Canada Post  1-14

1.02 Electronic correspondence - April 2018  1-14

1.02.01 Facsimile  1-14

1.02.02 Online  1-15

1.02.02a Canada as Receiving Office under the PCT: PCT-SAFE  1-16

1.02.02b Electronic medium  1-16

1.02.02c Canada as Receiving Office under the PCT: Electronic Filing of Sequence Listings  1-16

1.02.02d Electronic media accepted by the Patent Office  1-17

1.03 Details concerning the electronic formats accepted - April 2018  1-17

1.04 General information - April 2018  1-18

1.05 Statutory holidays - April 2018  1-18

1.05.01 Time limits under the Patent Act  1-19

1.05.02 Time limits under the Patent Cooperation Treaty  1-19

1.05.03 Provincial and territorial holidays  1-20

1.06 Procedures in case of an unexpected office closure at CIPO - April 2018  1-22

1.07 Procedures when CIPO is open for business but clients are unable to communicate with the Office - April 2018  1-23

1.08 Interviews – April 2018  1-23

1.08.01 Applicant-initiated interviews  1-23

1.08.02 Examiner-initiated interviews  1-24

1.09 CIPO Client Feedback – April 2018  1-25

Chapter 2 Opening and inspection of applications  2-25

2.01 Inspection of applications - April 2014  2-25

2.01.01 Opening of applications  2-26

2.01.02 Effect of withdrawal on opening of applications  2-26

2.01.03 Confidentiality of unopened applications  2-27

2.01.04 Effect of withdrawal of priority on opening to public inspection  2-27

2.02 Numbering of applications - April 2014  2-27

2.02.01 Information relating to applications identified by serial numbers  2-28

2.03 Publications related to Canadian documents – April 2018  2-28

2.04 Validity and interpretation of patents - April 2014  2-29

Chapter 3 Inquiries and information on pending applications  3-29

3.01 Inquiries by applicants - April 2014  3-29

3.02 Inquiries on pending applications (section 11 of the Patent Act) - April 2018  3-29

Chapter 4 Petitions and appointment of agents  4-29

4.01 Petition for grant of a patent - September 2014  4-29

4.01.01 Correction of clerical errors in the petition  4-30

4.01.02 Title of invention  4-30

4.01.03 Public Servants Inventions Act  4-31

4.02 Appointment of patent agents- September 2014  4-31

4.02.01 Appointment of associate patent agents  4-31

4.03 Small entity declarations - September 2014  4-32

4.04 Representative drawing - April 2014  4-33

Chapter 5 Filing and completion requirements  5-33

5.01 Scope of this chapter - June 2015  5-33

5.02 Filing of applications - June 2015  5-33

5.03 Requirements for a filing date - June 2015  5-34

5.04 Completing the application - September 2017  5-34

Chapter 6 Ownership, registration and joint inventors  6-35

6.01 Ownership – June 2015  6-35

6.02 Establishing entitlement at filing – June 2015  6-36

6.02.01 Regularly filed patent applications  6-36

6.02.02 PCT national phase applications  6-37

6.03 Registration of documents – June 2015  6-37

6.04 Types of documents registered with the Patent Office – June 2015  6-38

6.05 Requirements for registering a document (other than an assignment) – June 2015  6-38

6.06 Requirements for registering an assignment – June 2015  6-39

6.07 Registration certificates – June 2015  6-40

6.08 Maintaining chain of title – June 2015  6-40

6.09 Assignment correction mechanisms – June 2015  6-41

6.09.01 Error in the records of the Patent Office  6-41

6.09.02 Error in assignment document  6-41

6.09.03 Clerical errors  6-43

6.10 Joint inventors – June 2015  6-43

6.11 Adding and removing inventors – June 2015  6-44

6.12 Adding and removing applicants – June 2015  6-44

6.13 Jurisdiction of the Federal Court – June 2015  6-44

Chapter 7 Requests for Priority  7-44

7.01 Scope of this chapter - May 2014  7-44

7.02 Priority - May 2014  7-45

7.03 Requesting priority - May 2014  7-45

7.03.01 Right to priority  7-46

7.03.02 Transfer of ownership  7-47

7.03.03 Restoration of the right of priority is not available in Canada  7-47

7.03.04 Divisional applications and priority of parent application  7-48

7.04 Rules governing requests for priority - May 2014  7-48

7.04.01 Requirements for making a request for priority  7-48

7.04.01a Single priority document  7-49

7.04.01b Multiple priority documents  7-49

7.04.02 Applications filed before an intergovernmental authority  7-51

7.04.03 Applications filed before an international organisation  7-51

7.04.03a Applications filed before the PCT  7-51

7.04.03b Applications filed before the European Patent Office  7-52

7.04.04 Extensions of time not permissible  7-52

7.04.04a Dies non extension  7-52

7.05 Claim date based on multiple previously filed applications - May 2014  7-52

7.06 Withdrawal of a request for priority - May 2014  7-53

7.06.01 Confidentiality  7-54

7.07 Special topics - May 2014  7-55

7.07.01 Types of recognised priority documents  7-55

7.07.02 Same subject-matter in multiple priority documents  7-55

7.07.03 U.S. continuation and continuation-in-part applications  7-56

Chapter 8 Abstracts  8-57

8.01 Abstracts – June 2015  8-57

8.02 Reference characters in abstracts - September 2014  8-58

8.03 Examination of abstracts - September 2014  8-58

8.04 Examples of abstracts September 2014  8-59

Chapter 9 The Description  9-60

9.01 Scope of this chapter – December 2010  9-60

9.02 General requirements of disclosure – December 2010  9-61

9.02.01 Proper disclosure  9-61

9.02.02 Addressee is the person skilled in the art  9-62

9.02.03 Description supplemented by common knowledge  9-63

9.02.04 Misleading or erroneous statements  9-64

9.02.05 Addressee not to be presented with problems to solve  9-64

9.02.06 Theory of the invention  9-67

9.03 Disclosing a solution to a practical problem – November 2017  9-67

9.04 This section has been intentionally left blank  9-69

9.04.01 This section has been intentionally left blank  9-69

9.04.02 This section has been intentionally left blank  9-69

9.04.03 Combinations  9-69

9.05 Special topics – December 2010  9-70

9.05.01 Functional limitations  9-70

9.05.02 Disclosure of biotechnological inventions  9-71

9.05.03 The applicant as their own lexicographer  9-72

9.05.04 Disclosure of trade-marked products  9-73

9.05.05 Description by reference to the claims  9-73

9.05.06 Statements expanding the scope of the claims  9-74

9.05.07 References to foreign practice or law  9-74

9.06 Form of the description – December 2010  9-74

9.07 Formalities requirements of the description – December 2010  9-76

9.07.01 Pages of the description  9-76

9.07.02 Drawings, graphics and tables  9-77

9.07.03 Identification of trade-marks  9-77

9.07.04 Identification of documents  9-78

9.08 Amendments to the description – December 2010  9-79

9.09 Office actions on the description – December 2010  9-80

Chapter 10 Drawings  10-81

10.01 Drawings - September 2015  10-81

10.01.01 Amendments to drawings  10-81

10.02 Photographs - September 2015  10-82

Chapter 11 Claims  11-82

11.01 Basic requirements - March 1998  11-82

11.02 Principles of construction - March 1998  11-83

11.03 Clarity - March 1998  11-84

11.03.01 Antecedents  11-84

11.03.02 Ambiguity in claims  11-84

a) "Containing as an active ingredient"  11-85

b) "Therapeutically effective amount"  11-86

c) "A major part"  11-86

11.03.03 Negative limitations  11-86

11.04 Completeness of claims - March 1998  11-87

11.05 Support - March 1998  11-87

11.05.01 Claims referring to description or drawings  11-87

11.05.02 Scope in relation to description  11-88

11.05.03 Ranges not specifically described  11-89

11.06 Dependent claims - March 1998  11-89

11.07 Combinations - March 1998  11-90

11.07.01 Exhaustive combinations  11-91

11.07.02 Aggregation  11-91

11.08 Product claims - March 1998  11-91

11.08.01 Product-by-process claims  11-92

11.09 Means claims - March 1998  11-92

11.10 Process, method, method of use and use claims - March 1998  11-94

11.10.01 Process and method claims  11-94

11.10.02 Method of use and use claims  11-94

Guidelines for method of use claims  11-95

Guidelines for use claims  11-96

11.11 Markush claims - March 1998  11-96

11.12 Selection patents  11-97

11.13 Jurisprudence - March 1998  11-97

Chapter 12 Subject-Matter and Utility  12-101

12.01 Statutory subject-matter - November 2017  12-101

12.01.01 Art  12-101

12.01.02 Process  12-102

12.01.03 Machine  12-102

12.01.04 Manufacture  12-102

12.01.05 Composition of matter  12-103

12.02 Inventions must not be disembodied - November 2017  12-103

12.03 Excluded subject-matter - November 2017  12-104

12.03.01 Scientific principles and abstract theorems  12-104

12.03.02 Methods of medical treatment or surgery  12-104

12.03.03 Higher life forms  12-104

12.03.04 Forms of energy  12-105

12.03.05 Features of solely intellectual or aesthetic significance  12-105

12.03.06 Printed matter  12-106

12.03.07 Fine arts  12-107

12.03.08 Schemes, plans, rules, and mental processes  12-108

12.03.09 Games  12-108

12.04 Utility - November 2017  12-108

12.04.01 Controllability and reproducibility  12-109

12.04.02 Demonstration or sound prediction  12-110

12.04.03 Requirements for sound prediction  12-111

12.04.03a Factual basis  12-112

12.04.03b Sound line of reasoning  12-112

12.04.03c Proper disclosure of the sound prediction  12-112

12.05 Office actions on utility - November 2017  12-116

Chapter 13 Examination of Applications  12-117

13.01 Scope of this chapter - June 2015  12-117

13.02 Request for examination - June 2015  12-117

13.03 Advanced examination - June 2015  12-118

13.03.01 Advanced examination (special order)  12-118

13.03.02 Applications related to green technology  12-120

13.03.03 The Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH)  12-120

13.04 Examination - April 2018  12-120

13.04.01 Examination of the abstract, description and drawings  12-121

13.05 Examination of the claims using purposive construction - June 2015  12-121

13.05.01 Steps of purposive construction  12-121

13.05.02 Considerations for claim construction  12-122

13.05.02a Use a fair, balanced and informed approach  12-122

13.05.02b Identify the problem and solution  12-122

13.05.02c Determine which elements of the claim solve the identified problem  12-124

13.05.03 Examination once the claims have been construed  12-125

13.05.04 Examples of purposive construction  12-126

13.06 Search of the prior art - June 2015  12-133

13.07 Examiner’s reports - June 2015  12-135

13.07.01 Rule 29 requisitions  12-136

13.07.02 Rule 89 requisitions  12-138

13.07.03 Rule 104.1 requisitions  12-138

13.07.04 Withdrawal of an examiner’s report  12-138

13.08 Amendment of the application - June 2015  12-139

13.09 Final Action - June 2015  12-139

13.10 Refusal to grant a patent - June 2016  12-139

13.11 Allowance and notice of allowance - June 2016  12-139

13.12 Withdrawal from allowance - June 2015  12-140

13.13 Issuance of a patent - April 2017  12-141

Chapter 14 Unity of Invention  12-141

14.01 Scope of this chapter - November 2013  12-141

14.02 Unity of invention - November 2013  12-142

14.03 Meaning of “one invention only” - November 2013  12-143

14.04 Canadian unity standard harmonious with PCT standard - November 2013  12-143

14.05 General inventive concept - November 2013  12-144

14.06 A priori and a posteriori evaluation - November 2013  12-145

14.07 Examining for unity of invention - November 2013  12-148

14.07.01 Content of the report  12-149

14.07.02 Explaining a lack of unity defect  12-150

14.07.03 When a lack of unity defect can be identified  12-151

14.07.04 Responding to a requisition  12-152

14.07.05 Election of an invention  12-152

14.07.06 Referral to the Commissioner of Patents  12-153

14.08 Specific guidance - November 2013  12-154

14.08.01 Claims in different categories of invention  12-154

14.08.02 Unity without a claim to the inventive linking feature  12-156

14.08.03 Unity of invention and utility  12-158

14.08.04 Markush groups and lists of alternatives  12-159

14.08.05 Intermediates and final products  12-160

14.08.06 Multi-step methods of preparation  12-162

14.08.07 Unity and provisos  12-163

14.08.08 Additional examples  12-165

14.09 Right to file a divisional application - November 2013  12-165

14.10 Filing requirements for a divisional application - April 2017  12-165

14.11 Meaning of “original application” - November 2013  12-166

14.12 Time limits - November 2013  12-167

14.13 Examination of divisional applications - November 2013  12-167

Chapter 15 Anticipation, Obviousness and Double-Patenting  15-168

15.01 Anticipation – June 2016  15-168

15.01.01 Prior art when assessing anticipation  15-169

15.01.01a Self-anticipation  15-170

15.01.01b Third party anticipation  15-170

15.01.01c First-to-file anticipation based on filing-date  15-170

15.01.01d First-to-file anticipation based on priority date  15-171

15.01.02 Assessing anticipation  15-172

15.01.03 Anticipation by prior sale or use  15-176

15.01.04 Implicit or inherent disclosure  15-177

15.01.05 Anticipation based on related teachings  15-179

15.02 Obviousness – June 2016  15-179

15.02.01 Prior art when assessing obviousness  15-180

15.02.01a Obviousness and prior disclosures by the applicant  15-180

15.02.01b Obviousness and third party disclosures  15-181

15.02.02 Assessing obviousness  15-181

15.02.02a Person skilled in the art (Step 1(a))  15-182

15.02.02b Common general knowledge (Step 1(b))  15-184

15.02.02c Identifying the inventive concept (Step 2)  15-184

15.02.02d Identifying the differences between the inventive concept and the state of the art (Step 3) 15-185

15.02.02e Do the differences constitute an inventive step? (Step 4)  15-185

15.02.03 Obvious to try considerations  15-189

15.02.04 Aggregations  15-191

15.02.05 Obviousness and utility  15-192

15.02.06 Obviousness of anticipated claims  15-193

15.03 Claim date – June 2016  15-194

15.04 Grace period – September 2017  15-194

15.05 Establishing the publication date of prior art – January 2016  15-195

15.05.01 Verifying the validity of priority documents  15-196

15.06 Double-patenting – September 2017  15-196

15.06.01 Overlap  15-198

15.06.02 Existing patent  15-198

15.06.03 Co-pending applications  15-199

15.06.04 Division at the direction of the Office  15-200

15.07 Selections – June 2016  15-201

15.08 Provisos – June 2016  15-203

Chapter 16 Computer-Implemented Inventions  16-205

16.01 Scope of this chapter - October 2010  16-205

16.02 Subject-matter - October 2010  16-206

16.02.01 Art  16-206

16.02.02 Process  16-207

16.02.03 Machine  16-207

16.02.04 Manufacture  16-209

16.02.05 Com position of matter  16-209

16.03 Examining computer claims - October 2010  16-209

16.03.01 Adapting a computer to solve a problem  16-210

16.03.02 Patentability and programming  16-210

16.03.03 Examples  16-212

16.04 Utility - October 2010  16-217

16.05 Sufficiency - October 2010  16-218

16.05.01 Written description and enablement  16-218

16.05.02